Friday, November 8, 2013


Dungsam Yongla Gonpa was founded by First Khedrub Jigme Kundrol Namgyel in 18th Century. According to tradition, Jigme Lingpa had a vision in which he saw, near the Bhutan-India border, an abode of VajrakÄ«laya; Kedrub Jigme Kundrol was assigned to open the land for Buddhist activity. 

Further details can be found in following links.

Tuesday, April 9, 2013


It sounds odd and uncommon , even most weird when people uses the term "LA" in English.

Dzongkha is a beautiful language with great history as old as the foundation of Bhutan. It is one of the most advanced language existed, having commonalities in Buddhism. Apart from religious institute and monastic bodies, surprisingly it has attracted least people to explore and endeavor for further rigorous research. Most young educated Bhutanese ward off the Dzongkha as tough and old-fashioned. It has lead to people having little knowledge in Dzongkha and half in English. It can be observed from our daily conversation.

The term "LA" is suffix that we add as a token of respect in our national language, the Dzongkha. This trend have crept into our daily conversation and official correspondence which are made in English. Most educated Bhutanese suffice with the usage as we do in Dzongkha. I would like to term such DZONG-LISH.
Such usage might hamper and deter its value. There wouldn't be any identity of differentiating between two languages. As a Bhutanese one should  feel ashamed of ourselves if we uses English term while conversing in Dzongkha.

Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Airline 'fat tax': Should heavy passengers pay more?

Airline 'fat tax': Should heavy passengers pay more?

From excess luggage to excess flesh -- an economist says flight fares should be based on body weight. Should overweight passengers be charged more? One economics professor says yes.
An economics scholar in Norway has recommended that air ticket costs be calculated according to a passenger’s weight.
Dr. Bharat P. Bhatta, associate professor of economics at Sogn og Fjordane University College, Norway, is proposing three models that he says, “may provide significant benefits to airlines, passengers and society at large.”
In his paper, published in the Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, Dr. Bhatta noted “a reduction of 1 kilo weight of a plane will result in fuel savings worth US$3,000 a year and a reduction of CO2 emissions by the same token.”
He cited a move by Air Canada, which removed life vests from its planes to make each flight 25 kilos lighter, and other initiatives by low-cost carriers such as charging for excess luggage and making oversized passengers book two seats.
“Charging according to weight and space is a universally accepted principle, not only in transportation, but also in other services," Bhatta says. "As weight and space are far more important in aviation than other modes of transport, airlines should take this into account when pricing their tickets.”
His three “pay as you weigh” models are:
Total weight: A passenger’s luggage and body weight is calculated, with the fare comprising a per kilo cost. In this scenario a passenger weighing 100 kilos with 20 kilos of luggage (120 kilos total) would pay twice that of a passenger of 50 kilos with 10 kilos of luggage (60 kilos total).
Base fare +/- extra: A base fare is set, with a per-kilo discount applying for “underweight” passengers and a per-kilo surcharge applying to “overweight” passengers.
High/Average/Low: A base fare is set, with a predetermined discount applying for those below a certain weight threshold and a predetermined surcharge applying for those above a certain weight threshold.
Bhatta prefers the third of these options. He goes on to say that weight could be ascertained through passenger self-declaration, with one in five passengers randomly selected and weighed to dissuade cheats (with penalties for cheaters) or by weighing all passengers at check in.
This latter option however would “incur huge transaction costs” and “would require a passenger to arrive a couple of hours early to have time to get through weigh-in, security and passport control.”
Dochula Druk Wangel Chorten .

Monday, July 9, 2012

Five Dayana Buddhas!

(1) Attachment manifests as the mind's fervent desire for a given object. Because it has this expressive energy, at the time of path, the mind is capable of intense longing for the qualities of the path and fruition. In the context of the fruition, it is this expressive energy that perceives all phenomena with full acceptance, without turning away from anything. With its identity that of Discriminating Wisdom, it is Amitabha.

 (2) Aversion manifests as the rejection of dissonant objects. The presence of this expressive energy in the mind causes the disappearance of dissonant factors in one's being in the context of the path. At the time of fruition, this becomes Mirror-like Wisdom, which eliminates the stains of delusion regarding the nature of things. Thus, it is Vajra Aksobhya, the conqueror of all obstacles and demonic forces.

 (3) Stupidity manifests as a turning away from the nature of its objects. As such, it is a condition in which one remains indifference to a given object without giving it any thought. Since the mind has this expressive energy, it does not apprehend characteristics conceptually at the time of the path. In the context of the fruition, stupidity is identified with the Wisdom of the Basic Space of Phenomena, which does not conceive of any constructs. As such, it is Vairochana.

(4) Pride is feel inflated. Since the mind possesses this expressive energy, at the time of the path, it is able to perform all practices without becoming discouraged, with the knowledge that there is no path superior to that of mantra. In the context of the fruition, one comes into positive qualities, so there is no sense of impoverishment or dejection and one is free from the pains of inequality at all times. As it is the Wisdom of Equality in essence, it is Ratnasambhava

. (5) Jealousy views oneself as unequal to another in a way that cannot be tolerated. Because the mind possesses this expressive energy, it respectively engages and turns away from what should be practised and refrained from in the context of the path. At the time of fruition, one is able to benefit and refrain from harming those in need of guidance. With the nature of All-Accomplishing Wisdom, it is Amoghasiddhi. 
~ Luminous Essence by Jamgon Mipham.

Wednesday, July 4, 2012

God Particle

God particle: What is the Higgs Particle and what it does?

Scientists at the CERN research centre have found a new subatomic particle that could be the Higgs boson, the basic building block of the universe.

Joe Incandela, spokesman for one of the two teams hunting for the Higgs particle told an audience at CERN near Geneva: "This is a preliminary result, but we think it's very strong and very solid."

What is the Higgs Boson?

The Higgs is the last missing piece of the Standard Model, the theory that describes the basic building blocks of the universe. The other 11 particles predicted by the model have been found and finding the Higgs would validate the model. Ruling it out or finding something more exotic would force a rethink on how the universe is put together.

Scientists believe that in the first billionth of a second after the Big Bang, the universe was a gigantic soup of particles racing around at the speed of light without any mass to speak of. It was through their interaction with the Higgs field that they gained mass and eventually formed the universe.

The Higgs field is a theoretical and invisible energy field that pervades the whole cosmos. Some particles, like the photons that make up light, are not affected by it and therefore have no mass. Others are not so lucky and find it drags on them as porridge drags on a spoon.

Picture George Clooney (the particle) walking down a street with a gaggle of photographers (the Higgs field) clustered around him. An average guy on the same street (a photon) gets no attention from the paparazzi and gets on with his day. The Higgs particle is the signature of the field - an eyelash of one of the photographers.

The particle is theoretical, first posited in 1964 by six physicists, including Briton Peter Higgs.

The search for it only began in earnest in the 1980s, first in Fermilab's now mothballed Tevatron particle collider near Chicago and later in a similar machine at CERN, but most intensively since 2010 with the start-up of the European centre's Large Hadron Collider.

What is the Standard Model?

The Standard Model is to physics what the theory of evolution is to biology. It is the best explanation physicists have of how the building blocks of the universe are put together. It describes 12 fundamental particles, governed by four basic forces.

But the universe is a big place and the Standard Model only explains a small part of it. Scientists have spotted a gap between what we can see and what must be out there. That gap must be filled by something we don't fully understand, which they have dubbed 'dark matter'. Galaxies are also hurtling away from each other faster than the forces we know about suggest they should. This gap is filled by 'dark energy'. This poorly understood pair are believed to make up a whopping 96 percent of the mass and energy of the cosmos.

Confirming the Standard Model, or perhaps modifying it, would be a step towards the holy grail of physics - a 'theory of everything' that encompasses dark matter, dark energy and the force of gravity, which the Standard Model also does not explain. It could also shed light on even more esoteric ideas, such as the possibility of parallel universes.

CERN spokesman James Gillies has said that just as Albert Einstein's theories enveloped and built on the work of Isaac Newton, the work being done by the thousands of physicists at CERN has the potential to do the same to Einstein's work.

What is the Large Hadron Collider?

The Large Hadron Collider is the world's biggest and most powerful particle accelerator, a 27-km (17-mile) looped pipe that sits in a tunnel 100 metres underground on the Swiss/French border. It cost 3 billion euros to build.

Two beams of protons are fired in opposite directions around it before smashing into each other to create many millions of particle collisions every second in a recreation of the conditions a fraction of a second after the Big Bang, when the Higgs field is believed to have 'switched on'.

The vast amount of data produced is examined by banks of computers. Of all the trillions of collisions, very few are just right for revealing the Higgs particle. That makes the hunt for the Higgs slow, and progress incremental.

What is the Threshold for Proof?

To claim a discovery, scientists have set themselves a target for certainty that they call "5 sigma". This means that there is a probability of less than one in a million that their conclusions from the data harvested from the particle accelerator are the result of a statistical fluke.

The two teams hunting for the Higgs at CERN, called Atlas and CMS, now have twice the amount of data that allowed them to claim 'tantalising glimpses' of the Higgs at the end of last year and this could push their results beyond that threshold.
© Thomson Reuters 2012